Abstract: In this talk I will survey a well known, still wonderful, connection between geometry and arithmetics and discuss old and new results in this topic. The starting point of the story is Cartan's discovery of the correspondence between semisimple Lie groups and symmetric spaces. Borel and Harish-Chandra, following Siegel, later realized a fantastic further relation between arithmetic subgroups of semisimple Lie groups and locally symmetric space - every arithmetic group gives a locally symmetric space of finite volume. The best known example is the modular curve which is associated in this way with the group SL_2(Z). This relation has a partial converse, going under the name "arithmeticity theorem", which was proven, under a higher rank assumption, by Margulis and in some rank one situations by Corlette and Gromov-Schoen.